CH3OCH3 is the chemical formula for the compound Dimethyl Ether.
Ethers, as we know, belong to a group of organic compounds having the formula R-O-R’, where the R and R’ denote the alkyl radicals.
Dimethyl ether, also known as methoxymethane, is a colorless gas-bearing a faint odor. It has a molar mass of 46.07 g/mol and a density of 2.1146 kg/m3 as a gas at 00 C. In liquid form, it is volatile and poisonous.
CH3OCH3 has its use as propellants in aerosol products like hair sprays. It is a low-temperature solvent and can also be used as adhesives and binding agents. Other than this, it has applications in varied areas like oxygen-blown gasifiers, welding and soldering industries, diesel engines, printing, and polymerization.
Majorly dimethyl ether is manufactured via dehydration of methanol and the reaction goes as below:
2CH3OH ——-> CH3OCH3 + H2O
(CH3)2O is highly flammable in nature and hence can pose danger. Also, it can cause eye irritation, blurring of vision, and anesthesia.
Let us now proceed to have an elaborate discussion on the nature of chemical bonding inside a molecule of methoxymethane.
CH3OCH3 Lewis Structure
Lewis Structure is the initial step towards finding out about the chemical bonding in a given molecule.
It deals with the valence or the outermost shell electrons which come together in pairs and form covalent bonds between atomic elements.
We use electron dot notations to represent the valence electrons during the sketch of Lewis Structure.
Let us calculate the total number of valence electrons in a (CH3)2O molecule:
If we look into the periodic table, we can check that Carbon has a valency of 4, Oxygen has a valency of 6, and Hydrogen has only 1 valence electron.
Total number of valence electrons in CH3OCH3
= 4 + 3*1 + 6 + 4 + 3*1
A molecule of dimethyl ether has 20 valence electrons.
We need to find out the central atom of the given molecule.
In organic chemistry, one of the most important key points to keep in mind while sketching the electron dot structure is that hydrogen atoms will usually take the terminal positions irrespective of the comparison in the electronegativity values.
When we are drawing a CH3OCH3 molecule, we must remember that it consists of the ether (R-O-R’, here R=R’) group.
So, the skeletal formula for dimethyl ether looks like this:
We can see that oxygen has acted as the central atom in this molecule flanked by two methyl groups at both sides.
This is an exception to the general rule of always keeping the most electropositive element in the center while drawing the Lewis Structure.
Here, Oxygen with the highest electronegativity value has taken the central position.
We will now put the electron dot notations surrounding the atoms in the diagram:
In the beginning, we have put electron pairs between two atoms be it C and H or C and O so that bond formation can take place.
We have utilized 16 of our valence electrons to form 6 C-H and 2 C-O bonds.
So, where shall we put the remaining four?
Here comes the octet rule:
The elements present in group 1 to group 17 of the periodic table show a tendency to achieve octet valence shell configuration of the noble gas elements like Ne, Ar, and so on.
Exception: Hydrogen tends to achieve 2 electrons in its outermost shell to fulfill the He configuration.
This is known as the octet fulfillment rule.
If we check the elements in the dimethyl ether molecule, we find that all the hydrogen and carbon atoms have achieved their corresponding required configurations. However, oxygen only has four valence electrons surrounding it.
We have fulfilled the octet rule and used all the 20 valence electrons.
Now, we have to check the formal charge values for these atoms inside the molecule.
Formal Charge is calculated as:
Formal Charge of each C atom = 4 – 0.5*8 – 0 = 0.
Formal Charge of each H atom = 1 – 0.5*2 – 0 = 0.
Formal charge of the O atom = 6 – 0.5*4 – 4 = 0.
All the nine atoms in the molecule are in their least possible formal charge values. Therefore, we have got our required Lewis Structure diagram:
CH3OCH3 Molecular Geometry
Let us now discuss how we can proceed further and understand the inside of the molecule in a better and clearer manner.
We now already know how a 2-dimensional methoxymethane molecule looks like. We know about the valence electrons and the type of bonds formed (six C-H bonds and 2 C-O bonds).
What we need to learn now is how this molecule appears in 3-dimensional space.
For this, we have to know what the VSEPR model is.
VSEPR stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. This theory is required to predict the molecular shape of several compounds although it has its own limitations.
According to VSEPR theory, electrons being like-charged tend to experience repulsion amongst themselves in their negatively charged atmosphere. This repulsion needs to be minimized and hence atoms tend to stay apart from each other in order to maintain the stability of the molecule.
These electrons form groups ( the lone pairs and the bonded pairs) and we consider the central atom only in VSEPR theory for ease of calculation.
In VSEPR theory, we deal with AXnEx notations where:
‘A’ stands for the central atom, here we have the oxygen to be the central atom
‘X’ stands for the surrounding atoms, therefore the value of ‘n’ is 2 ( if we consider the C atoms or the CH3 groups)
‘E’ stands for the lone pairs on the central atom, ‘x’= 2.
So, we have the AX2E2 notation for the methoxymethane molecule.
As we can see, we get a bent molecular geometry like water here.
The bond angle of C-O-C is around 110 degrees due to methyl groups that experience steric repulsion.
The electron geometry is tetrahedral. And, given below is the 3D image of the shape of the CH3OCH3 molecule.
Orbital hybridization is the next concept that we are going to talk about in this article.
If we look at organic compounds like CH3OCH3, we have covalent bonds formed between carbon and hydrogen and also carbon and oxygen. If we want to explain this phenomenon of bond formation, we need to take the help of a model. Here we use the hybridization model.
Orbital hybridization refers to the combination and mixing of atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals. The atomic orbitals must be of the same atom and bear equivalent energies.
Let us look at our central atom in dimethyl ether molecule. It is Oxygen. Oxygen forms two single bonds with two Carbon atoms at its sides.
Always remember, single bond refers to sigma pairing i.e. head-on-head overlap of orbitals. For this to happen, the s and the three p orbitals of Oxygen need to form sp3 hybridized orbitals.
Also, if we check the coordination number of oxygen in this molecule, the value comes to 4 owing to the two bonded and the two lone or unshared pairs of valence electrons. Either way, we can conclude that the oxygen atom has sp3 hybridization.
What do we mean by Polarity? Polarity is the concept or topic in chemistry where we talk about charge distribution inside a molecule of a compound.
We know that dipole moment is used to measure electronegativity that is defined to be the degree to which any atomic element can attain electrons.
When two elements forming a bond have a certain degree of difference in their electronegativity values (usually above 0.4), we get charges at the two poles making the bond polar in nature.
Let us have a look at the Pauling electronegativity chart:
The electronegativity value of C is 2.55, H is 2.20 and O is 3.44 as per the chart.
The difference between C and H values is not quite significant but when it comes to the 2 C-O bonds, we will have a partial 𝛅+ on C and a 𝛅- on O atom.
The difference is around 0.89 which results in the formation of polar bonds.
The dipole moments of these bonds point in the same direction which does not result in the cancellation of the dipole of the molecule as a whole. The dipole value of methoxymethane is 1.3 D.
Hence, we can say that CH3OCH3 is slightly polar in nature.
In this article on Methoxymethane or Dimethyl ether, we have covered Lewis Structure, VSEPR theory for 3D molecular geometry, hybridization, and also the concept of polarity.
CH3OCH3: Name: Dimethyl ether (DME)/Methoxymethane
Polarity: Polar ( dipole 1.3D)
Molecular Geometry: Bent
Also, if we check the coordination number of oxygen in this molecule, the value comes to 4 owing to the two bonded and the two lone or unshared pairs of valence electrons. Either way, we can conclude that the oxygen atom has sp3 hybridization.Is CH3OCH3 polar or nonpolar? ›
CH3 OCH3 is a polar molecule. Let's look at the Lewis structure of the molecule. Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities, so those bonds are nonpolar. However, carbon and oxygen have different electronegativities, so those bonds are polar.What is the geometry of CH3OCH3? ›
Therefore, the molecular geometry of each C atom in CH3OCH3 C H 3 O C H 3 is tetrahedral.What is the molecular geometry about the oxygen atom in dimethyl ether CH3OCH3? ›
With O as the central atom, the electronic and molecular geometry of dimethyl ether is tetrahedral and bent shape respectively.Does CH3OCH3 have hydrogen bonding? ›
The answer is yes.How many valence electrons are in the Lewis structure of CH3OCH3? ›
For the CH3OCH3 Lewis structure, we have a total of 20 valence electrons.Why is CH3COCH3 polar? ›
The oxygen linked to the carbon has a tendency to attract the pair of bond electrons between the oxygen and carbon, so CH3COCH3 is polar.Why is CH3OCH3 dipole-dipole? ›
Answer and Explanation: The given compound is CH3OCH3 C H 3 O C H 3 and the name of the compound is dimethyl ether. In this molecule, two alkyl (CH3 C H 3 ) groups and both are bonded to 1 oxygen atom. Due to the difference in electronegativity, a dipole is generated.Is CH3OCH3 soluble in water? ›
Dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) ( C H 3 O C H 3 ) also forms hydrogen bonding with water molecules. So, it is also soluble in water but the extent of hydrogen bonding is less in dimethyl ether due to the bulky methyl group.How many lone pairs are in CH3OCH3? ›
Well, there are 2×O−C bonds, and 2 oxygen-centred lone pairs of electrons.
3 The formal charge on oxygen in dimethyl ether; CH3OCH3, is +2 +1 Z-What is the electron geometry around O in O2? ›
The bond angle is 180 degrees, and there are 12 valence electrons. O2 is a nonpolar molecule with linear geometry. There are four lone electron pairs in the oxygen molecule.Is dimethyl ether polar or nonpolar? ›
The C-O bonds of methoxymethane (dimethyl ether) (CH3-O-CH3) are polar. The geometry of the molecule is angular, resulting in an overall molecular dipole. Hence the molecule will be subject to dipole-dipole and dipole/induced dipole interactions as well as the stronger dispersion forces.What is the functional isomer of CH3OCH3? ›
Functional isomers are the ones with the same molecular formula but the different functional group. The molecular formula for dimethyl ether is C2H6O similar to ethanol. Dimethyl ether has structural formula CH3OCH3 and ethanol has structural formula CH3CH2OH.Why is CH3OCH3 not hydrogen bonding? ›
In dimethyl ether (CH3−O−CH3) there are no H-atoms attached directly to O and hence no H-bonding is possible in ethers. Even if ether is mixed with polar solvents like H2O or H2O2 the H-bond formed with O-atom of ether is very very weak due to stearic repulsion of R-groups in ethers.Which of the following can form hydrogen bonds with water CH3OCH3? ›
Therefore, only CH3OCH3, F2, and HCOOH can form hydrogen bonds with water.Can ch3coch3 form hydrogen bonds with water? ›
Yes, CH3COOH C H 3 C O O H can form hydrogen bonds with water (H2O H 2 O ) molecules.How many valence electrons does ch3coch3 have? ›
The structural formula for acetone has a total of 24 valence electrons.Is CH3OCH3 a liquid at room temperature? ›
Due to the presence of hydrogen bonding, the bonds in ethanol are not easily broken and hence ethanol remains in liquid state. On the other hand, this type of bonding is absent in case of dimethyl ether(CH3OCH3) and hence it is a gas at room temperature.What is the hybridization of oxygen in methoxymethane? ›
There are two bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons on central oxygen atom. This results in sp3 hybridization.
The structure of ethanol is given below. Hence, the molecule CH3CH2OH C H 3 C H 2 O H is polar.How do you find the polarity of acetone? ›
Is C3H6O (Acetone) Polar or Non-Polar? - YouTubeIs co CH3 2 polar or nonpolar? ›
Acetone is a polar substance because of polarity in the carbonyl group due to the difference in the electronegativity of oxygen and carbon atom. As a result, the dipole moment of Acetone is around 2.69 D.What forces of attraction are broken between CH3OCH3 molecules? ›
CH3OCH3 or CH3CH2OH? Why because the CH3CH2OH molecules are held by dispersion, hydrogen bonding and dipole -dipole force of attraction but the molecules of CH3OCH3 are held only by the weaker dispersion and dipole-dipole forces of attraction.What intermolecular forces are present in CH3CH3? ›
H2CO is a polar molecule and will have both dipole-dipole forces and London dispersion forces while CH3CH3 is a non-polar molecule and will only have London dispersions forces.Why is CH3OCH3 not an alcohol? ›
In this group, one hydrogen atom remains directly attached to one oxygen atom. The given molecule is named dimethyl ether which contains an ether functional group. The structure of dimethyl ether and the ether group is shown below: So, CH3OCH3 C H 3 O C H 3 does not contain an alcohol functional group.Is CH3OCH3 an organic acid? ›
|Related ethers||Diethyl ether Polyethylene glycol|
|Related compounds||Ethanol Methanol|
CH3CH2OH is more soluble in water since it can donate a hydrogen bond to water and accept a hydrogen bond from water. CH3OCH3 can only accept a hydrogen bond from water; it does not have hydrogen which can hydrogen bond to water.What is the molar mass of CH3OCH3? › What is the mass percentage of C in CH3OCH3? ›
How to Draw the Lewis Structure for CH3CH2OH - YouTubeHow many lone pairs Does O have? ›
Normally, oxygen atoms have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs. Atoms of hydrogen have 1 bond and no lone pairs.What is the formal charge of the single bonded O in o3? ›
- The formal charge on oxygen atom 3 is '-1'. - Therefore the formal charge of ozone is '0'.How can oxygen form 3 bonds? ›
Oxygen will usually have 2 bonds, occasionally 3; however, if the O has 3 bonds it will be positively charged. Often, an oxygen atom will have only 1 bond, but the oxygen atom will be negatively charged. Halogens usually have 1 bond; notable exceptions are polyatomic ions.What is the polarity of O2? ›
The diatomic oxygen molecule (O2) does not have polarity in the covalent bond because of equal electronegativity, hence there is no polarity in the molecule.What is the hybridization of O3? ›
O3 has the central O atom with a double bond and coordinate bond by donating an electron pair to the other O atom. The central O also has a lone pair on itself. The double bond, lone pair and coordinate bond each occupy an orbital, i.e, sp3 hybridized.What is the shape molecular geometry of this molecule O2? ›
The O2 molecule has a linear or tetrahedral geometry shape because it contains one oxygen atom in the tetrahedral and three corners with three lone pairs of electrons. There is one O=O. double bond at the O2 molecular geometry.Are there any polar bonds in diethyl ether? ›
No, Diethyl Ether is not polar.Why are ethers polar in nature? ›
Ethers have general structural formula R-O-R'. Hence all of them have the C-O bond. We know that the C-O bond is polar due to the difference between the electronegativities of carbon and oxygen. Hence, ethers show dipolar nature.Which is true for the bond angle of water and dimethyl ether? ›
Solution : Dimethyl ether has greater bond angle than that of water, however in both the molecules centrla atom oxygen is `sp^(3)` hybridised with two lone pairs.
Dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH) are isomers, butCH3OCH3 has a pKa of 40 and CH3CH2OH has a pKa of 16.Which of the following is functional isomer of CH3COCH3? ›
Structural Isomersim (Constitutional isomerism)
Similarly acetone and propanaldehyde (CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2CHO) are a pair of functional isomers.
Primary, secondary and tertiary amines are functional isomers.What is hybridization with example? ›
Hybridization in Chemistry is defined as the concept of mixing two atomic orbitals to give rise to a new type of hybridized orbitals. This intermixing usually results in the formation of hybrid orbitals having entirely different energies, shapes, etc.How do you determine hybridization and shape? ›
Use the valence concept to arrive at this structure. Concentrate on the electron pairs and other atoms linked directly to the concerned atom. This step is crucial and one can directly get the state of hybridization and shape by looking at the Lewis structure after practicing with few molecules.What is sp3 hybridization with example? ›
In sp3 hybridization it involves the mixing of one s orbital and three p orbitals of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp3. A mixture of s and p orbitals formed is in tetrahedral symmetry and is maintained at an angl of 109o28". E.g CH4.What is the formal charge on oxygen in CH3OCH3? ›
3 The formal charge on oxygen in dimethyl ether; CH3OCH3, is +2 +1 Z-What is the hybridization of oxygen in Methoxymethane? ›
There are two bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons on central oxygen atom. This results in sp3 hybridization.What is the Lewis structure of ch3ch2oh? ›
How to Draw the Lewis Structure for CH3CH2OH - YouTubeWhat is hybridization with example? ›
Hybridization in Chemistry is defined as the concept of mixing two atomic orbitals to give rise to a new type of hybridized orbitals. This intermixing usually results in the formation of hybrid orbitals having entirely different energies, shapes, etc.
Use the valence concept to arrive at this structure. Concentrate on the electron pairs and other atoms linked directly to the concerned atom. This step is crucial and one can directly get the state of hybridization and shape by looking at the Lewis structure after practicing with few molecules.How do you determine polarity? ›
How to determine polarity in a molecule - YouTubeIs CH3OCH3 a liquid at room temperature? ›
Due to the presence of hydrogen bonding, the bonds in ethanol are not easily broken and hence ethanol remains in liquid state. On the other hand, this type of bonding is absent in case of dimethyl ether(CH3OCH3) and hence it is a gas at room temperature.How many lone pairs Does O have? ›
Normally, oxygen atoms have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs. Atoms of hydrogen have 1 bond and no lone pairs.What is the formal charge of the single bonded O in o3? ›
- The formal charge on oxygen atom 3 is '-1'. - Therefore the formal charge of ozone is '0'.What is the hybridization of o in OH? ›
As there is no middle element in OH- lewis structure, there is only one bonded atom and three lone electron pairs are present. Therefore, the oxygen atom shows sp3 hybridization in OH- lewis structure.Is o in ether sp3? ›
The central oxygen atom in ether is sp3 hybridized.Is oxygen a sp2 or sp3? ›
O2; Each O atom is sp2 hybridized.What is the hybridization of O in CH3CH2OH? ›
Both carbon atoms and oxygen atom has sp3 hybridization.Is CH3CH2OH polar or nonpolar? ›
The structure of ethanol is given below. Hence, the molecule CH3CH2OH C H 3 C H 2 O H is polar.
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) contains two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Two carbon atoms have joint with a single bond and oxygen atom has made bonds with carbon and hydrogen atoms. There are two lone pairs on oxygen atom.